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Top 10 Oldest Countries in the World You Must Know About

The resiliency of the nations that have withstood centuries of civilization and cultural change creates a magnificent canvas of history around the world. These ten ancient nations, which range from the rough coasts of the Mediterranean to the cradle of civilization in Mesopotamia, provide insights into the origins of humankind. They have persevered in preserving languages, customs, and civilizations that continue to influence our shared history. Every nation serves as evidence of the human spirit’s resilience and serves as a reminder of how intertwined our past and present are. We are reminded of the unwavering fortitude that has propelled these countries through the years and left an enduring imprint on the path of human history as we delve into their diverse pasts.

List of the Top 10 Oldest Countries in the World 

  1. Egypt
  2. Iran
  3. India
  4. Armenia
  5. Iraq
  6. China
  7. Greece
  8. Mexico
  9. Japan
  10. San Marino

1. Egypt

Egypt’s history dates back more than 5,000 years, making it one of the oldest nations on Earth. Located in the northeastern corner of Africa, Egypt’s ancient civilization thrived along the lush banks of the Nile River, making a lasting impression on human history. Egypt’s past greatness is immortalized in the pyramids of Giza, the mysterious Sphinx, and the magnificent Luxor temples.

Egypt was a powerhouse of culture, science, and power in the ancient world, from the era of the pharaohs to the conquests by the Greeks and Romans. People all throughout the world are still enthralled by the lasting legacy that its contributions to art, architecture, mathematics, and medicine have left behind.

Known as Egypt’s lifeblood, the Nile River supported the nation’s agricultural success and promoted trade and connections with nearby civilizations. An advanced civilization was encouraged to flourish by the nutrient-rich silt that was deposited by the Nile’s yearly floods.

Magnificent architecture, elaborate hieroglyphic writing, and a sophisticated theological philosophy based on the veneration of gods and goddesses were the hallmarks of ancient Egypt. The pharaohs, who were regarded as divine rulers, ruled with total power, supervising massive building projects and military expeditions that increased Egypt’s sphere of influence throughout antiquity. Egypt maintains a strong sense of cultural identity and pride in its ancient legacy despite millennia of victories, invasions, and political upheavals.

Read More: Explaining the Unsolved Mysteries of Ancient Egypt

2. Iran

Iran, which was once known as Persia, is one of the world’s oldest continuously existing civilizations, with a rich history spanning more than 6,000 years. Iran, which is in the middle of the Middle East, has historically been at the crossroads of many cultures, civilizations, and empires. Iran has seen the rise and fall of several dynasties, leaving behind a legacy of art, literature, and scholarship. These dynasties ranged from the powerful Achaemenid Empire, which ruled over extensive areas in the sixth century BCE, to the Islamic Golden Age, which lasted from the ninth to the thirteenth centuries.

With its massive remains, the ancient city of Persepolis stands as a tribute to Iran’s majesty and strength during the Achaemenid era. Iran’s dominance in the region was further cemented by the Sassanian Empire, which came after the Parthians and left behind a rich architectural and cultural legacy.

Iran has historically been a hub for intellectual, commercial, and trade interchange, serving as a link between the East and the West via the well-known Silk Road. Persian poetry and philosophy, popularized by such greats as Rumi and Hafez, have had a significant influence on global culture and have inspired generations of people. Iran has preserved a strong sense of national identity and cultural pride, anchored in its ancient past, despite periods of conquest and foreign occupation.

3. India

India, one of the oldest nations in the world with a history spanning over 5,000 years, is frequently referred to as the cradle of civilization on the Indian subcontinent. India’s legacy is braided with the strands of spirituality, ingenuity, history, and culture, from the diverse tapestry of cultures and traditions that exist now to the ancient Indus Valley Civilization that existed approximately 3300 BCE.

Located in modern-day Pakistan, the ancient cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa were epicenters of complex urban design, featuring well-thought-out roadways and intricate drainage systems. The ruins of these old civilizations bear witness to India’s rich cultural legacy as well as its early contributions to technology and government.

India has been a melting pot of cultures, ideologies, and religions throughout its history. As a result, some of the world’s main religions, such as Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism, and Hinduism, originated there. The spiritual landscape of India as well as the rest of the world has been greatly influenced by the teachings of historical leaders like Mahavira and Gautama Buddha.

India has made substantial contributions to mathematics, science, and literature. Ancient India is credited with the development of the decimal system, the zero idea, and the theory of the earth’s rotation around its axis. With epics like the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, Sanskrit literature never ceases to enthrall and inspire readers around the globe.

4. Armenia

Armenia is one of the world’s oldest nations, having been around for more than 3,000 years. Armenia, which is located at the meeting point of Europe and Asia, has a long history and has been woven into the fabric of human civilization for eons.

Evidence of early towns in Armenia dates to the sixth millennium BCE, suggesting that the country has been populated since the Neolithic era. Around the ninth century BCE, the kingdom of Urartu, which was based on the historic city of Van, rose to prominence in the area and left behind remarkable fortifications and inscriptions that attested to its highly developed culture.

Armenia’s conversion to Christianity at the beginning of the fourth century CE significantly influenced its history and strengthened its sense of cultural identity. The nation established a strong spiritual legacy that still exists today by being the first to formally accept Christianity as the state religion.

Armenia has seen many hardships during its turbulent history, such as invasions, victories, and genocide. One of the worst periods in Armenian history, the Armenian Genocide of 1915, which was carried out by the Ottoman Empire, claimed millions of lives and forced countless more to flee their homes.

5. Iraq

Considered by many to be the “Cradle of Civilization,” Iraq is among the oldest nations on Earth, dating back more than 5,000 years. Iraq’s ancient civilizations established the foundation for human culture, creativity, and governance, with their locations in the fertile valleys between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

The Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians were among the oldest known civilizations to flourish in Mesopotamia, the region between the rivers. These prehistoric peoples created large, sophisticated cities, sophisticated communities, and revolutionary advances in writing, mathematics, and the law.

One of the oldest cities in history is Uruk, which dates to the fourth millennium BCE. Meanwhile, Babylon, an ancient city famous for its Hanging Gardens, thrived as a hub of trade and culture.

Iraq’s archeological landmarks, such as the ziggurats of Ur and the ruins of Nineveh, which provide a window into the magnificence of the ancient Mesopotamian civilization, are testaments to the country’s rich cultural legacy. Iraq has persistently maintained its cultural richness and tenacity in the face of millennia of conquests, invasions, and battles. Its contributions to human civilization, like the creation of writing and the codification of laws, still have an impact on the contemporary world.

6. China

China, known for having one of the world’s oldest and most persistent civilizations, has a lengthy history spanning more than 5,000 years. China, a country with ancient origins that is tucked away in the birthplace of East Asia, has shaped human civilization via its dynasties, ideologies, and cultural contributions.

The Shang and Zhou dynasties, which established Chinese governance, social structure, and religious beliefs, succeeded the Xia Dynasty, which is widely regarded as the first dynasty of ancient China. The Xia Dynasty began to form in the 21st century BCE.

China has seen the rise and fall of many dynasties over its history, including the Qin, Han, Tang, Song, and Ming, all of which left behind enormous artistic, literary, and technological legacies. China’s historic sites, such as the Great Wall and the Forbidden City, serve as living reminders of its majesty and might.

China has a rich cultural legacy that transcends its boundaries. Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism have influenced East Asia’s philosophical and spiritual landscape. China’s impact on world history was cemented with the creation of the compass, gunpowder, papermaking, and printing. These innovations transformed international trade, science, and warfare.

China’s civilization has persevered despite upheaval and foreign invasions, changing and adapting yet holding fast to its fundamental beliefs and customs. China maintains its position as one of the most ancient and influential nations in human history by embracing the chances and difficulties of the modern world while honoring its ancient past. China is currently a worldwide superpower and an economic behemoth.

Read More: Top 10 Natural Resources of China 

7. Greece

Greece, one of the oldest nations in the world with a history spanning more than 3,000 years, is frequently praised as the cradle of Western culture. Greece, which is tucked away along the Mediterranean coast, has a lengthy history steeped in philosophy, mythology, and creative achievement.

The emergence of city-states like Athens, Sparta, and Corinth, each of which added to the political and cultural fabric of the ancient world, is considered the birthplace of ancient Greek civilization. In the 5th century BCE, Greece experienced a golden age of democracy, philosophy, and the arts. Aristotle, Plato, and Socrates were among the great thinkers who shaped Western philosophy at this time.

Greece’s great architectural accomplishments, such as the Parthenon, the Acropolis, and the Temple of Olympian Zeus, which still astonish and inspire adoration today, are prime examples of its cultural legacy.

Alexander the Great’s conquests increased Greece’s power and dispersed Hellenistic culture over the enormous expanses of Asia and Africa. Greek language, literature, and philosophy left an enduring legacy that shaped later generations of intellectuals, artists, and statesmen and set the foundation for Western civilization.

8. Mexico

Mexico is among the oldest nations in the Americas, with a rich history that dates back thousands of years before the advent of European explorers. It is a place of lively cultures and ancient civilizations. With roots dating back over 3,000 years to the Olmec culture, one of the earliest Mesoamerican communities, this diversified nation is nestled between the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.

The Olmec, who were renowned for their enormous stone heads and elaborate carvings, established the groundwork for other civilizations that thrived throughout Mexico’s diverse terrain, including the Maya, Zapotec, and Aztecs. Renowned for their exquisite architectural designs and profound understanding of astronomy, the Maya built magnificent cities like Chichen Itza and Tikal, while the Aztecs constructed Tenochtitlan, which is now known as Mexico City.

Mexico’s cultural environment was drastically altered by the Spanish invasion in the sixteenth century, but the indigenous heritage of the nation persisted and was combined with European influences to produce a distinctive and dynamic mestizo culture.

Mexico’s diverse cultural heritage, which includes colonial legacies, modern inventions, and indigenous customs, has captured the attention of people all over the world. Mexico’s legacy is evidence of the tenacity and inventiveness of its people, from the historic sites of Teotihuacan to the vibrant marketplaces of Oaxaca.

9. Japan

Japan is one of the oldest countries in the world, with a rich history spanning thousands of years. It is an archipelago steeped in both modern innovation and ancient tradition. Japan, an island nation in the Pacific Ocean, has prehistoric roots; human presence is traced back to the Paleolithic age.

The Jomon period, distinguished by its unique pottery and hunter-gatherer way of life, is considered to have signaled the dawn of Japanese civilization. The Yayoi period, which introduced metallurgy and rice farming and laid the foundation for the development of early Japanese society, came after this.

The Yamato state emerged throughout the ancient era, retaining its own customs while absorbing elements of Chinese culture and governance. Imported from China and Korea, Buddhism flourished alongside Japan’s indigenous religion, Shintoism, influencing the country’s spiritual and cultural landscape.

Japan has gone through times of seclusion, war, and cultural contact with other civilizations throughout its history. Strong samurai clans ruled the feudal era, which ended with the Meiji Restoration in the 19th century, signaling Japan’s quick modernization and rise to prominence in the world economy.

Also read: Oldest Universities in the World

10. San Marino

San Marino is one of the world’s oldest nations, having been around for more than 1,700 years. During a turbulent period in medieval Europe, San Marino emerged as a sanctuary of liberty and democracy, having been founded in 301 AD by Saint Marinus, a Christian stonemason who was fleeing religious persecution.

With a constitution that dates back to 1600, the officially recognized Republic of San Marino is acknowledged as the oldest surviving republic in the world. San Marino is a symbol of tenacity and perseverance because, despite its small size, it has managed to preserve its independence through centuries of conflict and political instability.

The well-preserved medieval architecture of San Marino, which includes the famous towers of Guaita, Cesta, and Montale that provide expansive views of the surrounding countryside, is a testament to the country’s rich cultural legacy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site, San Marino’s historic town is full of charm and personality, with its cobblestone streets, charming piazzas, and centuries-old churches.


Exploring the most ancient nations reveals a rich culture of human history. Every country serves as a monument to the tenacity of humanity, from Mesopotamia, the birthplace of civilization, to Egypt’s ageless wonders, Asia’s lasting cultures, and Europe’s old heritage. We are humbled by the legacy left by our predecessors, even as we marvel at their age-old wonders and customs. These countries provide a link between the past and the present, bringing to mind our universal humanity. They create timeless connections with their enduring spirit, which arouses wonder and reverence for the development of human civilization. We see the enduring strands that bind us all together, as well as the ghosts of the past, when we delve into their depths.


Which Nation is the Oldest in the World?

If we assume that Egypt was founded in 3150 BCE, then it is the oldest country in the world.

Which Nation is Older, Japan or China?

Written records are where history starts. The period before the use of written language is known as prehistory.

Which Nation is the Youngest?

The Republic of South Sudan is the world’s newest nation.

Is China Younger than Russia?

China is older than Russia in terms of recorded history.

Does the History of China Span Five Millennia?

According to Li (2002), these oracle bones date from 1200-1700 BCE, which means that Chinese civilization is ‘just’ 3200–3700 years old. 

Oleksandra Mamchii

Working as a academic lead at Best Diplomats.

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