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What Is the Motive of China Behind Its Interest in Taiwan?

The relationship between China and Taiwan has been a longstanding geopolitical issue that has captivated international attention for decades. The motivations behind China’s keen interest in Taiwan are multi-faceted, containing historical, political, economic, and strategic factors. To understand the dynamics of this conflict and its possible effects on regional stability and global politics, it is essential to know these reasons.

Historical and Cultural Significance

China’s claim over Taiwan is based on historical and cultural ties. The island of Taiwan was under Chinese rule for centuries before it came under Japanese colonial control in the late 19th century.

World War II

After World War II, Taiwan was returned to Chinese sovereignty, but the Chinese Civil War led to the establishment of separate governments on the mainland and the island. The People’s Republic of China (PRC) was founded in 1949 on the mainland, while the Republic of China (ROC) retreated to Taiwan.

For China, Taiwan represents an unfinished chapter of its history – a territory that was once an integral part of the Chinese nation. Leaders of Beijing view reunification as a matter of national pride and historical justice, seeing Taiwan as a non-negotiable part of China’s sovereign territory. This sentiment is deeply embedded in China’s approach to the Taiwan issue.

One China Policy

China’s aspiration for reunification is reflected in its “One-China” policy, which states that Taiwan is an integral part of Chinese territory. This policy has significant diplomatic consequences, as China wants to limit Taiwan’s international recognition and participation in global forums. 

1- Diplomatic Isolation

Beijing is putting pressure on countries and international organisations to stick to the One-China principle; they also refused to establish official diplomatic relations with any country that recognizes Taiwan as a separate sovereign state.

China’s motivation for the One-China policy is tied to its broader foreign policy goals. China aims to isolate Taiwan diplomatically and weaken its influence and legitimacy at international level.  

Which Countries Recognize Taiwan? 

As Taiwan is facing various challenges in regards to sovereignty, recognition on international forums and relations with neighbouring countries, there are still some countries supporting and recognizing Taiwan as a sovereign state. These countries include Guatemala, Haiti, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Belize, Palau, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Vatican City.

Strategic Considerations About Security and Geopolitics

China’s interest in Taiwan also has strategic dimensions. The most important factor is the geographical location of Taiwan, situated near vital sea lanes and maritime routes. Taking control over Taiwan would allow China a strategic advantage in the Pacific region and East Asia. 

1- The Taiwan Relation Act of 1979

The United States’ historical security commitment to Taiwan adds another layer of complexity to the situation between China and Taiwan.The Taiwan Relations Act (TRA) of 1979 states that the U.S. has to provide defensive weaponry and support to Taiwan.

China’s demand to fully reunify with Taiwan is complicated by the possibility of U.S. intervention. The annexation from the U.S could escalate the conflict and lead to broader regional instability.

Economic Transformation: Taiwan as a Tech Giant

Taiwan has transformed itself into a technological powerhouse, owning some of the world’s leading semiconductor and technology companies. This economic capability of Taiwan is a source of attraction and concern for China.

Recognition of Taiwan’s Tech Sector

Beijing recognizes the value of Taiwan’s advanced technology in its own economic development and innovation. As such, China seeks to tackle Taiwan’s technological expertise through various strategies, including investment, collaboration, and acquisition of Taiwanese companies.

However, China’s interest in Taiwan’s technology sector is associated with concerns about national security and economic dependence. The strategic industries in Taiwan are closely linked to global supply chains, and any disruption could have devastating effects on various sectors.

China’s Domestic Politics: Nationalism and Legitimacy

China’s stance on Taiwan is connected with its domestic politics and the legitimacy of the Communist Party’s rule. The Taiwan issue serves as a rallying point for nationalism, reinforcing the party’s claim to represent the Chinese people and defend their national interests. 

1- China’s Public Sentiment 

As a matter of fact, Chinese leaders are acutely aware of the public’s sentiments regarding Taiwan, and taking a strong stance on reunification is seen as essential to maintaining popular support in public. 

The Chinese government often uses its position on Taiwan to divert attention from domestic challenges or to increase public dissatisfaction towards external issues. The Taiwan problem can be used to improve the party’s reputation and support the idea of China’s comeback on the international stage.

Pathways to Resolution: Peaceful Reunification or Escalation in Conflict 

China’s motivation to bring Taiwan under its control can potentially manifest in two main pathways: peaceful reunification or intimidating measures. The Chinese government has proposed a “one country, two systems” framework similar to the arrangement with Hong Kong.

Beijing claims that “one country, two systems” could help Taiwan to maintain its liberty while being part of China. However, this proposal has been met with harsh criticism in Taiwan because of concerns about political freedom and human rights.

1- What if China Escalates?

Military drills, naval exercises, and increasing military presence of China in the Taiwan Strait raise concerns about escalation in conflict between China and Taiwan.

According to the international community, any military action in the region could have far-reaching consequences, destabilising the broader East Asian region and potentially leading to a confrontation with the United States.

Global Intimation: Maintaining Stability across Region 

The Taiwan issue goes further than the borders of China and Taiwan, creating regional instability and political turmoil across all over the world. The United States has an interest in the peaceful resolution of the Taiwan situation and aims to protect regional security and the global economy. 

Maintaining peace and stability between Taiwan and China requires ultimate diplomacy, open communication, and a commitment to dialogue. The international community plays a significant role in peaceful solutions and implementation of international law.

Response from International Community: Balancing Act

China’s ambitions concerning Taiwan are not hidden from international scrutiny. The global community, neighbouring countries, the United States, and international organisations closely monitor the developments happening around Taiwan. The delicate balancing act between respecting China’s sovereignty claims and protecting Taiwan’s rights and freedom presents a challenging diplomatic landscape.

Neighbouring countries in the region, including Japan and South Korea, have their own geopolitical concerns regarding the Taiwan issue. Their economies are interlinked with China’s, but they also rely on regional stability for their growth and security. 

1- Will the United States Intervene? 

The United States, as a major power with interests in the Asia-Pacific region, draws a fine line between maintaining its commitment to Taiwan’s security and avoiding a direct confrontation with China. The U.S. policy of “strategic ambiguity” seeks to discourage any military aggression against Taiwan while not specifically committing to military intervention. 

International organisations like the United Nations face challenges when addressing the Taiwan issue. China’s insistence on the One-China policy limits Taiwan’s participation in global forums, as Taiwan is not recognized as a sovereign state by many members. This isolation restricts Taiwan from participating and contributing to global issues such as health crises and climate changes.

The Role of Soft Power: Winning Hearts and Minds through Diplomacy 

China’s interest in Taiwan goes beyond geopolitics and territorial claims. Soft power, the ability to shape the preferences of others through attraction plays a crucial role in China’s approach. Beijing employs cultural exchanges, economic incentives, and people-to-people diplomacy to encourage closer ties between the people of Taiwan and mainland China.

To encourage cross-cultural understanding and advance the idea of a common Chinese identity, educational initiatives, cultural activities, and tourism exchanges are used as tools. Economic promotions, like exclusive trade agreements and investment opportunities, aim to highlight the advantages of deeper economic integration with mainland China.

Although China’s soft power initiatives try to foster a sense of connection and shared identity, they also cause unease in Taiwan. Taiwanese people place a high emphasis on their unique identity, democratic government, and freedoms. China has to proceed lightly when dealing with the delicate concepts of identity and autonomy as it struggles to increase its influence through soft power.

Consequences for China 

As China’s interest in Taiwan is determined, there are various challenges and complexities ahead. The potential pathways towards resolution are interlinked with risks and opportunities. The peaceful resolution needs a measured, strategic and diplomatic approach. As per China’s claim, peaceful reunification could lead to closer economic cooperation and regional stability, but according to experts, China has to address all the concerns about political freedom and human rights of people of Taiwan. On the other hand, coercive measures or military action to force reunification would create devastating and far-reaching consequences, including regional instability and broader conflicts. As the U.S already committed to the security of Taiwan, it would add another layer of uncertainty in the region. 

The international community’s role in shaping the outcome cannot be underestimated. Diplomatic efforts aimed at promoting dialogue and understanding between all parties are essential. Encouraging China to pursue peaceful means of reunification, respecting Taiwan’s autonomy, and upholding international law should be paramount.

Navigating a Complex Landscape 

China has a keen interest in Taiwan, which is developed from complex political, economic, cultural, and geopolitical elements. The narrative of China’s history and sense of national identity are firmly rooted in the desire for reunification. However, given Taiwan’s position, technological capability, and global consequences, strategic and geopolitical factors make this problem crucial in international relations. On the other hand, most of the western powers are supporting Taiwan and its policies to combat the brutal measures of China. These two blocs are changing the landscape of today’s world, increasing the threats of another conflict or diplomatic isolation. 

What is Australia’s stance on the Taiwan situation?

Australia and Taiwan have unofficial relations, including trade, culture and interpersonal connections. However, Australia does not formally recognize Taiwan as a sovereign state.  Australia’s approach to Taiwan is driven by its economic and strategic interests in the region. Taiwan is not just an important trading partner but the whole region is a critical part of Australia’s Indo-Pacific strategy. Australia is always looking to maintain its diplomatic relationships with Taiwan and China as well.  


Resolving the Taiwan issue requires a delicate balance between respecting national sovereignty, safeguarding human rights and freedoms, and ensuring regional stability. The international community, particularly countries in the Asia-Pacific region and the United States, play a significant role in shaping the direction of this complex relationship.

As the world watches the evolving dynamics between China and Taiwan, the hope remains that diplomatic efforts will prevail over forceful measures. A peaceful resolution that respects the aspirations of the people of Taiwan, acknowledges China’s historical claims, and fosters stability in the region is an ambitious but essential goal.


What is the Issue between China and Taiwan ? 

The issue between China and Taiwan is a long-standing historical and political dispute. China considers Taiwan as its own territory and often talks about forceful strategies to achieve reunification. On the other hand, Taiwan considers itself a sovereign and separate state with its own military and government. 

How Dangerous is the Taiwan Issue?

The dispute between China and Taiwan could have far-reaching consequences for the whole region or global community. As Taiwan has become a giant in the technological sector and China is the world’s number one exporter, the escalation in conflict would create a huge impact on the global economy and politics.

What is Taiwan’s Biggest Industry? 

Taiwan holds the position of being the leading provider of contract computer chip manufacturing services globally, and it also stands as a prominent producer of LCD panels, DRAM computer memory, networking equipment, designer and manufacturer of consumer electronics.

Oleksandra Mamchii

Working as a academic lead at Best Diplomats.

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